History of Olomouc

The foundation of the town was ascribed to Gaius Julius Caesar and the name of city comes from the Latin origin Julius's Mountain - Juliomons.

First mention
The first written notice about Olomouc is dated back to 1055. The mention comes from Kosmas chronicle and is about castle -- the seat of Premyslide dynasty.

11th to 12th century
The Olomouc was the most important center of religion, culture and politics in Moravia. In the 1063 Duke Vratislav II established a bishopric in St.Peter's church, which doesn't exist any more. The bishopric was moved next to the Wenceslas Cathedral in 1131. Prince Oto founded the Hradisko Monastery, which was the center of religious life and the funeral place in 1078.

The rule of Premyslides dynasty
Dukes in Olomouc were important representatives of the Premyslides power in Moravia during the 11th and 12th century. After their dying out lost Olomouc its resident function. In the 12th century there was the St.Wenceslas Basilica founded by bishop Henry Zdik. The Olomouc got together from many smaller scattered parts round St.Moritz's and St.Michael's church, and others. The Wenceslas III, the last king of Premyslides, was assassinated in the Premyslide Palace during his campaign against Poland in 1306.

15th to 17th century
Olomouc was, during the Hussite's wars in 15th century, on the side against Hussites. This defiance resulted in the 1469 coronation of a Hungarian, Matthias Corvinus, Czech anti-King. Bishop William Prusinovsky called Jesuits to Olomouc in 1566. In the same year they established their academy, and a few years later, in 1573, they raised it to become the second university in the country. The city was occupied by the Swedish army from 1642 up to 1650 during Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). In this time Olomouc lost the prime position in Moravia and was terribly devastated. When the Swedish army left the town, Olomouc was slowly renovated and tried to renew municipal buildings and improve cultural life. It used the title,'capital' (Brno has been using this title since 1782)and town walls and fortifications were built during 17th and 18th century.

18th to 19th
The oldest scientific and educational association (Societas incognitorum) was founded in 1746, a room for theatre performances was built in 1770, the Bishopric was promoted to Archbishopric in 1777, musical association Collegium musicum was there in 1770-1781, a new theatre in 1830.
The university was secularised in 1773, in 1778 it moved to Brno and came back four years later as a lyceum.
The stormy year of 1848 brought the Viennese court to the fairly peaceful Olomouc. And the Olomouc Archbishopric became the place where Emperor Francis Joseph I mounted the throne.
The fort had not only the military meaning there was a prison too. Many important men were there. The fort helped people only once in 1758 and it has been disfunctional since 19th century and then it was destroyed. After the destroying of the town's fortifications the town was enlarged. A historical centre was surrounded by beautiful parks.

20 th century
After Second World War the university was reestablished and renamed on 21st February 1946 to Palacky University. It was opened in 1947 and it had 4 faculties - Philosophical, Medical, Pedagogical and Theological.
Olomouc was the seat of a regional council in 1949-1960. The centre of the town was several times proclaimed the urban preservation area.
After year 1989 Olomous has to solve a lot of problems to get rich - bad conditions of buildings, monuments, traffic transport, ashortage of parking-sites, an urban plan of the development.

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